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A Framework for Model-Based Adaptive Training

Historical Record and Recording Trainee Progress

This record covers a trainee’s achievements. It covers all of the training tasks the employee has completed, shows when various pieces of training were completed, and plots out the employee’s development path (or paths) and how far they are along the proficiency scale.

The historical record details are lists of tasks together with dates and proficiency records. From decomposing training objectives into tasks and comparing these tasks to the historical record, the trainer agent can identify relevant tasks started, completed and failed.

An on-line training record is kept of what training is currently being undertaken by the trainee. This part of the trainee representation includes comprehensive information about a trainee’s current activities within the training environment. One aspect of this part of the profile is its use of the Training Goal Hierarchy to show what subparts of the plan the trainee has and has not completed.

Along with this is local diagnostic information about how the trainee is proceeding with the various plan segments and training units. The training record details in the MOBAT specification framework are:

  • Training Objectives – A list of objectives the trainee is expected to achieve.
  • Training Goal Hierarchy – A dynamic tree of training activity based on training objectives and task decomposition.
  • Training Strategy – Chosen from four possible values: (a) tutoring - a strategy with extensive control over the training process; (b) coaching - a guiding strategy; (c) facilitating - a support “as needed” strategy; and (d) discovery - browsing application.
  • Skeleton Training Plan – There may be several skeleton plans. For example, (a) all presentations before examples and questions, or (b) each presentation followed by example and question units.
  • Training Units Used – A list of training units used by the trainee. The dynamic training unit representation contains detailed status information of trainee activity. The trainer agent (didactic tactician) can take appropriate action (e.g., to present, to dictate, to coach, to facilitate) to switch domain models based on trainee performance, training strategy and training plan.

Diagnostic Information

Research into diagnostic methods is still in progress in the MOBIT project [MOBIT 1996, W14]. Diagnostic information is updated by the trainer agent (diagnostic tactician) and will be used to store the conclusions as to a trainee’s knowledge of the training objectives.

The dynamic training unit representation contains detailed status information of trainee activity. The trainer agent (diagnostic tactician) can take appropriate action (e.g., to advise, to intervene, to remediate, to assess) to adjust the domain models based on three types of trainee errors: (a) Slips; (b) Bugs; and (c) Misconceptions.

  • Slips – The diagnostic tactician logs the error and may suggest that the didactic tactician adjusts the precision dimension of the current domain model. The didactic tactician decides the appropriate action (according to a set of trainer methods), which may be ignoring the slip (for an expert trainee), notifying the trainee of the slip (for a competent trainee), asking the trainee to do the training unit again (for a novice trainee).
  • Bugs – The diagnostic tactician logs the error and, according to the classification of errors, it suggests that the didactic tactician adjusts the appropriate accuracy dimension of the domain model. With an adjusted accuracy range in the domain model for the task at hand, the didactic tactician can (according to a set of trainer methods) select an appropriate training unit to correct the trainee error.
  • Misconceptions – The diagnostic tactician logs the error and suggests that the didactic tactician adjusts the uncertainty dimension of the domain model. With an adjusted domain model for the task at hand, the didactic tactician can (according to a set of trainer methods) select an alternative training unit for the trainee to correct the trainee error.
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