A Framework for Model-Based Adaptive Training
Trainee Goal Expertise Level
A key element in the ITSIE methodology is the identification of 3 levels of performance which is based on [Rasmussen 1986]. Jens Rasmussen created a model of human performance in problem solving situations which describes the different classes of operation required under different situations within a complex dynamic environment. He defines three human behaviour classes as:
- skill-based behaviour;
- rule-based behaviour; and,
- model-based behaviour.
In complex problem-solving situations all three levels are commonly used and the boundary between these classes is not quite distinct. These classes provide a means in a requirements specification to explicitly define the required trainee goal expertise level.
Below is a brief description for each of these levels.
Skill-based Expertise : Skill here is taken as routine procedures that arise in problem solving if enough knowledge exists to determine the correct step to take. This is competent behaviour which is carried out without conscious control or explicit decision making. It is a skilled activity which is often attained as the result of extensive practice and experience.
Rule-based Expertise : Rules here are taken as explicit problem solving knowledge which is used to control search in problem solving with the selection, evaluation and execution of the appropriate actions. This is competent problem solving behaviour which requires conscious control or explicit decision making.
Model-based Expertise : This is also called knowledge-based expertise although knowledge at this level is taken in the rather restricted sense as possession of a conceptual, structural model [Rasmussen 1986, p.102]. This model controls problem solving performance in unfamiliar situations where there are no existing rules for generating behaviour. The knowledge used at this level may be regarded as theoretical or ‘first-principles’ knowledge [ITSIE 1992, D7].