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Poultry Knowledgebase

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SC Single Comb
SF Soft Feather
SL Silver Laced
SQ Show Quality
SS Speckled Sussex
SX Sussex
Salmon Faverolles Salmon_Faverolles
Salmonella Salmonella has species that are either host-specific or non-host specific. The host-specific Salmonella pullorum of chickens and turkeys is the cause of Pullorum disease. This has been erradicated from UK poultry flock.
Salmonnela gallinarum, which is again host-specific for chickens and occasionally turkeys, is uncommon in the UK, causing fowl typhoid.
The non-host-specific forms of Salmonella cause relative few disease signs in poultry, but lead to many cases of disease in humans.
Found in chickens, turkeys and ducks among others, the bacteria tend to be carried in the gut.
When the eggs, meat or meat products are incorrectly stored or cooked and then eaten by humans disease results.
Salmonella enterides and Salmonella typhimurium are the most commonly seen types.
Sawdust An ideal litter for the housing floor is wood shavings or sawdust as it absorbs moisture, does not stain plumage, and gives the birds something to scratch around in.
The shavings/sawdust should be changed once a week or as required to prevent the build up of parasites. Hygiene is more important with indoor pens.
Damp and dirty floor litter can contain harmful bacteria which can lead to respiratory disease, which, if the building is poorly ventilated, could lead to the infection of all the birds.
When cleaning out it is a good idea to spray the floor of the pens with a non-toxic disinfectant before putting in fresh shavings/sawdust.
Wood shavings compost well with hen droppings, which are high in nitrates.
Do not use very fine or dusty wood shavings.
Scaley Leg This disease is caused by a mite that lives under the scales of the legs or feet, where it causes great irritation.
This results in a multiplication of the tissue cells and the secretion of the serum. The scales are raised, and the legs become thickened and have a rough lumpy appearance.
The disease is easily recognised. It is contagious, but some birds appear to be immune. It is most common in flocks kept on earth or in dry litter runs.
In the early stages it seems to cause little inconvenience, but should it be neglected the birds lose condition, go lame and have difficulty in perching. In the worst instance mortality may occur.
Scaley Leg - Treatment Treatment of scaley leg is simple, with the use of Vaseline or Protocon Ointment. This should be well massaged into the legs and feet, then bandaged with lint.
Remove the bandage after 7 days and you will surprised at the amount of debris it has drawn out.
If the condition is not too bad then simply massage again with either ointment, and again 7 days later. This will ensure that all the eggs are killed.
For the first seven days of treatment, place your birds on a multivitamin solution tonic in the water to help them over any stress.
Prevention: The mites are easily destroyed by a thorough disinfection programme of the house including the perches.
Scotch Greys Scotch_Greys
Scratch Grains fed separately to chickens, usually scattered on the ground or litter of the coop.
Set To put eggs under a broody hen or in an incubator to hatch them.
Sex-link A genetic trait that creates a difference (usually in colour) between males and females.
Sexing When chick feathers start to drop between 10 and 12 weeks, new, sharply pointed and shiny male plumage will be noticed on the backs of the males.
An advantage amongst a few breeds is that when crossed the progeny are sexed linked. Sex linkage means that on hatching, the day old cockerels are different in colour or some other characteristic to the female.
Breeds vary, but it is also possible to distinguish the sexes by headpoints, the cockerels being redder and their heads bigger and bolder than those of the pullets. The legs and feet of males are larger.
The plumage method is the most accurate as birds develop at different rates, except for Silkies, where a wait of at least 14 weeks will be necessary in order to determine from comb development which are which.
At about five months old it is possible to grade young stock for colour and markings and other breed characteristics.
Shell The hard outer surface of an egg made up largely of calcium carbonate; the shell has pores allowing loss of carbon dioxide and moisture from the egg.
Shell membranes Two thin membranes next to the shell and surrounding the albumen and yolk; known as inner and outer shell membranes; they are one of the egg's chief defenses against bacterial invasion.
Sicilian Buttercups Sicilian_Buttercups
Sicilian Flower Birds Sicilian_Flower_Birds
Silkies Blue_Silkies
Soft Feather Breed Divided into both large and bantam varieties.
Includes: Wyandotte, Sussex, Buff Rock, Leghorn, Poland, Orpington, Australorp, Welsummer, Silkie, Ancona and Araucana.
Soft-feathered breeds have a profusion of feathering which, in some cases, can completely disguise the shape and size of the body underneath.
Soft Shelled Eggs are more prevalent in the springtime heavy laying season. Being laid prematurely before secretion of shell in the uterus or some physiological disturbance in the laying hen.
Speckled Sussex Speckled_Sussex
Split Wing Wings with a distinct gap between the primary and secondary feathers. A serious fault for show birds.
Spurs Sharp nails grown on males shanks, occasionally a hen will grow spurs.
Squirrel tail A condition where the tail feathers curve forward towards the head of the bird, instead of being more vertical or facing to the rear. Generally this problem is caused by a genetic disorder.
Starter Feed A blend of feed for chicks and growing birds, usually in the form of mash.
If you do not have chick starter feed, you can feed them for a day or two on instant oatmeal, flaked infant cereal, or other whole-grain cereals.
You can put whole grains (rice, wheat, barley, old-fashioned oats, anything) into the blender and blend them slightly.
Stockholm Tar This is an old-fashioned product which can be effective as a treatment against feather pecking.
Straw Wood shavings for livestock is the cleanest and best. Straw may be cheaper but check that it is fresh and clean and not mouldy or been contaminated by vermin or cats.
Do not use hay due to harmful mould spores which will give the hens breathing problems.
Sultans Sultan

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