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Poultry Knowledgebase

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LB Light Breed
LDIS Late Death In Shell
LF Large Fowl
LL Avian Lymphoid Leukosis
LPAI Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza
LS Light Sussex
LT Laryngotracheitis
Laryngotracheitis A highly contagious infectious Herpes viral disease of chickens and pheasants.
Layer A bird kept for egg production.
Leghorns Brown_Leghorns White_Leghorns
Legs Condition of legs is important, Scaly leg mite is an infectious nuisance. Watch out for rough and raised scales.
Lice Lice are small insects whose feeding causes irritation and itching so that infested animals spend a good deal of time scratching in attempts to rid themselves of the pests.
The common poultry louse is yellow in colour and flat in shape and lives mostly under the tail. Several kinds of lice attack poultry, with the body louse (Menacanthus stramineus) being the most common.
Other common bird lice include the shaft louse (Menopon gallinae), the fluff louse (Goniocotes gallinae), the wing louse (Lipeurus caponis) and the head louse (Cuclotogaster heterographus).
All lice on poultry are chewing lice, with mouthparts adapted for feeding on feathers and scales of the skin. They are permanent ectoparasites, spending their entire life on the bird.
Injury is due to irritation or itching caused by the crawling lice and their gnawing at the feathers and skin.
Birds become restless and do not feed or digest their food properly.
The adult female lays its eggs on the animal, gluing them to the feathers. The eggs (nits) hatch in a few days and the young lice mature in about two weeks.
Lice lay their eggs at the base of the feathers forming a clump of what looks like white sugar. the bird is better off without these, but they are not life threatening.
Use a louse powder such as Invermec. Alternatively use a cat/dog flee spray or shampoo.
Light A window is often located near the roof with a sliding cover to allow for adjusting the ventilation and covered in mesh.
The amount of light increases egg laying, 14 hours being the optimum if you are adding artificial lighting which can come on with a timer in the early morning, allowing the birds natural twilight to choose their roost.
Corrugated clear plastic can be used for roofing as it lets the light through and deters red mite which likes dark places.
When artificial lighting is used it must be turned-on on the first of September and turned off at the end of April (in the UK).
This applies to poultry house with sufficient window area to provide daylight before the birds are let out. If no windows then increase the duration of artificial lighting.
Glass window panes may be removable so that they be put away for the summer and only used in winter. Use chicken wire together with the removable window panes.
It is very unfortunate that we see far too many poultry houses on sale with very little if any window area at all.
Light Breeds There is great variation colours and types with many being imports. Virtually all of these lay white or light coloured eggs. The White Leghorn still out-produces most breeds, but there are several other colours.
Other Mediteranean breeds are the Ancona (white spots on black), minorca and Andalusian (blue laced).
British breeds include the Derbyshire Redcap, Old English Pheasant Fowl, hamburg (pencilled or spangled), Scots Dumpy (short legs) and Scots Grey, all of which should have good utility attributes.
Within the Light Breeds are the Crested Breeds including the Poland, the Appenzeller, the Araucana (blue/green eggs) and that most fluffy of birds, the Silkie.
The Frizzle looks strange with its backward-curling feathers but is a decent layer. Old English Game and the reachy Modern Game are particularly hardy and colourful.
Light Sussex Light_Sussex
Litter The bedding used
Localised Pasteurellosis A chronic infectious disease of chickens caused by a bacterium. Characterised by inflammation of the face and wattles. Can infect all birds and mature chickens are more susceptible.
Transmission is from bird to bird (from infected or carrier to susceptible bird). Also contracted from infected premises; in some cases following an outbreak of fowl cholera.
The infection usually enters the birds tissues through mucous membranes of the pharynx or upper respiratory tract, but may also enter via conjunctive and superficial wounds.
Domestic cats, raccoons, and other small animals harbor pasteruella in their mouths and introduce infection t domestic poultry. Chronic pasteurellosis follows outbreaks of fowl cholera.
Clinical signs are only few birds in the flock getting affects, it spread slowly. Low mortality and slight decrease in egg production. Affected birds have swelling of the face or wattles and nasal discharge.
Laboured breathing and occasionally, a bird will exhibit incoordinaton if infection becomes localized in the middle ear. Treatment is sulfadimethoxine (SDM) but other sulfas are also effective.
Short-term treatments do not prevent relapses; long term water treatments can cause drug toxicity. Feed treatment is safer and more effective. Sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, and sulfaquinoxaline are effective.
Lxworth The lxworth breed was created by Reginald Appleyard in the early 1930s, and took its name from a village in Suffolk in England. It was developed as a table bird, but offered useful laying ability too.

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